Full form of SONAR in science|| History, applications, pros, cons & types

Full form of sonar in science

Full form of SONAR in science: Sound Navigation and Ranging.

A SONAR is a device used to detect objects under-water. The device SONAR uses the principle of reflection. The device works like this - when anything comes its way, the sound waves are reflected back to it. It works the same way as a living bat (the smallest mammal). The only difference is - it is giant and artificial. SONAR is a good detector of the reflecting sound called echoes. Moreover, modern-day SONAR technologies are so advanced that they can easily match the exact kind of sound being emitted.

According to thoughtco.com, the SONAR was invented back in the year of 1906. Lewis Nixon made a similar device which was used in the icy areas. However, the most modified form of modern Sonar came in the year 1915. It was invented by Paul Langévin. It was known as the "echolocation to detect submarines". However, a Sonar is actually used to detect any submarine underwater - by receiving the echoes send back from them. Knowing SONAR full form in English is worth it.


1. Underwater navigation: The technique Sonar is used to find out the presence of any kind of submarine or objects under the surface of the water. It sends a cluster of sounds waves, and then receives echoes. Moreover, the echoes help it to recognise what is there underwater. Mostly, used by the navy.

2. A war weapon: Modern Sonar doesn't only come with sound detectors. However, these echo recognising devices are extensively used in wars and battles. Moreover, modern SONARs are now employed with highly destructive weapon installed in them. Above all, they are very good at destroying enemy ships and submarines.
3. Underwater communication: Since it can emit and receive sound waves. However, it is used for underwater communication. During wars, friend- submarines use to communicate via the SONAR technique. It makes it easier to target and destroy enemy submarines and ships.
4. Used to measure speed: SONAR is also used to measure the speed of sound wave being emitted. It is useful for getting the data on the strength of the sound wave. Sonar is also used to find out the length of water bodies. It can easily find out by measuring the distance travelled by the sound wave being emitted by it. Knowing SONAR full form in English is worth it.


1.Boon to the Navy: A country's navy mainly operates in the water bodies. During wars and even during normal days. The navy is greatly benefited by the SONAR. It helps them to find, destroy and keep track of enemy ships and submarines easily. It is a great weapon for the navy.

2. Learning depth: Researchers and scientists use this machine to determine the depth of any water body. All they need to do is to just emit a sound wave and the distance it travels before getting echoed back. Gives the depth of the water body. It is greatly used by water scientists to find out the clarity and the depth of the water body.

3. Cost-effective technology: Apart from its numerous pros. It is a cost-effective technology used by the military and navy. It is cheap and easy to use. Moreover, any nation can easily buy such technologies and use them in winning battles.

4. Accuracy: SONAR technology uses the same mechanism as a bat does. But the difference is - bats are not accurate but SONAR gives accurate data. Its accuracy makes it more preferable and popular among all other detection technologies.


1. Marine disturbance: Sonar completely works with the sound waves that it emits. It has to emit powerful sound waves to get accurate data. The strong sound waves collide with all the underwater animals (like the fishes, whales, sharks, crabs, dolphins etc.) It totally disturbs them.
2. A lot of waves required: Submarines and ships are huge. to get the exact position and shape of such huge submarines. It is required to send a huge cluster of sound waves. A single wave can't help getting the right information regarding its shape and size.
3. Data can't be transferred: Sonar can be used for underwater communication. But the data can't be shared underwater using the basic style of the technology - Sonar. It requires a high - effective technology for the same.
4. Working range: The technology Sonar works on a basic working range. It can't work beyond or above that basic working range. However, it's range get decreased with the increase in frequency. High operating frequency is required for extracting accurate and exact data.


1. Active SONAR: The active sonar technology is one - which works actively. When sound waves are emitted, the distance covered by them to reach the water vehicles gives us the measure of its position. It is used for active objects and real sounds.
2. Passive SONAR: The sound that is detected from water animals. Like the noise made by sea animals like (whales, sharks, octopuses etc.)

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